Passage Practice English Language Session IBPS Set 2

Directions (1-10): Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it.
Many factors influence whether you notice a pain at all and if you do, how much it hurts. Since the pain message is received and interpreted by the brain, competing messages may block it or other factors may enhance the intensity of the sensation. The pain threshold-the point at which a person reports can be raised as much as 40% by hypnosis or by loud noise or other distractions.
Fully a third or pains can be relieved by a placebo, or sugar pill, if the patient believes it to be an active pain-killing drug. Recent studies suggest that placebos work by triggering the release of the body's own morphine endorphins. That a pain can be dissipated by a placebo does not mean that it was feigned. A placebo is anything that seems to be a "real" medical treatment but isn't. It could be a pill, a shot, or some other type of "fake" treatment. What all placebos have in common is that they do not contain an active sub-stance meant to affect health. Sometimes a person can have a response to a placebo. The response can be positive or negative. For instance, the person's symptoms may improve. Or the person may have what appears to be a side effect from the treatment. These reponses are known as the "placebo effect." Research on the placebo effect has focused on the relationship of mind and body. One of the most common theories is that the placebo effect is due to a person's expectations. If a person expects a pill to do something. then it's possible that the body's own chemistry can cause effects similar to what a medication might have caused.

For instance, in one study. people were given a placebo and told it was a stimulant. After taking the pill, their pulse rate sped up, their blood pressure increased and their reaction speeds improved. When people were given the same pill and told it was to help them get to sleep, they experienced the opposite effects. Experts also say that there is a relationship between how strongly a person expects to have results and whether or not results occur. The stronger the feeling, the more likely it is that a person will experience positive effects. There may be a profound effect due to the interaction between a patient and health care provider.

1) A pain may be felt lightly or intensely by a person according to
a) his brain capacity.
b) how much it hurts.
c) the intensity of other messages to the brain.
d) the nature of the person and his attitude to pain.
e) the nature of taking medicines.

2) Loud noise is resorted to in reducing pain on the principle that
a) it can shock a person out of consciousness.
b) it neutralizes the cause of the pain.
c) the intensity of the pain sensation can be enhanced.
d) the brain can be distracted from noticing the pain message.
e) It enhances the cause of pain.

3) According to the passage
a) A placebo helps a doctor to detect whether a patient really has pain.
b) Placebos help in relieving pain.
c) Placebos immunize the body against pain.
d) Doctors prescribe placebos in order to deceive their patients.
e) None of these.

4) Research on the placebo effect has focused on the study of
a) Pills that are given to patients.
b) What doctors suggest the patients.
c) The effect of this on mind and body.
d) How the patient studies the case
e) Whether doctors can learn anything from this

5) What will have an intense effect on the patients?
a) The use of a drug.
b) The use of pills or medicines which are related to the disease.
c) Following their own will.
d) Having an interaction with the health care provider.
e) Feeling that it is not good.

Directions (6-8): Choose the word which is MOST SIMILAR in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
6. Threshold
a) Verge
b) Wedge
c) Wage
d) Gaze
e) Gauge

7) Distractions
a) Dimensions
b) Deputation
c) Diversions
d) Demands
e) Orders

8) Dissipated
a) Upright
b) Degenerate
c) Dissociate
d) Compact
e) Assemble Directions

Directions (9-10): Choose the word which is MOST OPPOSITE in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
9) Expectations
a) Follow
b) Promise
c) Profound
d) Despair
e) Lighten

10. Profound
a) Deep
b) Negative
c) Positive
d) Reflective
e) Superficial

1) C
2) D
3) A
4) C
5) D
6) A
7) C
8) B
9) D
10) E

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